Towards In-Between Nature-Culture
Walking Along the River... On the Road... In the City…


Also, the PhD research continuously and positively contributes to
distinct knowledge by exploring the field of contemporary art, particular MOVing-Image, via theoretical contribution (extensive readings & art theory as secondary research), practical contributions (production of art work MOVing-Image as primary research), methodology contribution (implementation of Practice-based Research/ PbR via contextualization of creative and theoretical elements), and extensively updates.


Throughout the genealogy of Chinese landscape art (Shanshui 山水 or Mountains & Rivers), the historic legacies and contexts of the Scroll have been widely used as literary traditions (文人) that interplay among image, calligraphy, poetry, text, and painting. Through walking among mountainous landscapes with massive crags and narrow fissures between rocks, and water flowing, landscape art depicts aesthetic, philosophical, and religious qualities as art genre and as subjects of Nature. This PhD investigates an entangled field of artworks, literary and philosophical texts, nature writing, digital images, and moving-image on spaces of possibility and the imaginary, by which landscapes have been illustrated, the research argues, as cultural construction.

An important aspect of the project is that the Practice-based Research (PbR) has been initiated by the dichotomous propositions from Robert Smithson’s A Tour of the Monuments of Passaic, New Jersey. Smithson documented and walked, referring to Walking As Art, or, Walkscapes, as claimed by Careri, across a post-industrial city of Passaic. Smithson’s writing creates a cultural and textural space of art production (as mediation, representation, mimesis, and a documentary process), which echoes an anti-landscape and anti-aesthetic, developed through my research questions and arguments. Referring to and exploring the walking-writings and thoughts from 18th century to present, the research also experiments with and contextualizes the dialectical questions of how Nature has been widely adapted as the key to creative practices and production in relation to the extensive-SCAPES study or in the representative view, such as in Landscapes, Seascapes, Riverscapes, Mountainscapes, Cityscapes, Streetscapes, Soundscapes, Walkscapes, Picturescapes, Imagescapes, and Videoscapes. Thus, the unique artistic formSCROLL would be employed as critical scapes and scopes in contributing to both practical and theoretical investigation.

The methodological framework expands the philosophical SCROLLs on contemporary art, by which photo documentations, fiction-like writings and travelogue have been illustrated as critical reflections on City Modernization and Urbanization in a view of cityscapes, that further contextualize via artistic praxis and extensive theories. The research is, thus, situated within this trajectory and trans or inter- disciplinary studies in focusing on the still-image and moving-image. Thus, the term MOVing-Image has been coined to describe the dynamism and rapid changes in nature.

This PhD thesis mainly consists of three research SCROLLs: Walking Along the River, On the Road…, and In the City… that demonstrate Walking/the Flâneur as a significant artistic-interventive tactic to further explain and illustrate an interceptive/interactive/interpretative praxis for creating contemporary art outcomes in terms of literary or visual representations.

The findings also contribute to the research arguments and to distinct knowledge by exploring new hybrid MOVing-Image forms (Manovich, 2006), via theoretical and practical contributions- a methodology which extensively updates definitions of MOVing-Image. Especially, the emergence and resurgence of the visual representation of SCROLLs as MOVing-Image are further examined in terms of experimentation with significant aspects of the Entanglement between such concepts as East and West, Nature and Culture, and High and Low.

Finally, this PhD research also contributes to contemporary art practices that explore movement and its mediation, especially through the analogue and digital MOVing-Image.

Keywords: Cityscapes, Culture, Dichotomies, Entanglement, Flâneur, Landscapes, Modernization, MOVing-Image, Nature, Riverscapes, Road, Painting, Practice-based Research, Psychogeography, Scroll, Urbanization, Videoscapes, Walkscapes.

Dr. Andy Tam (PhD, MA, MEd, FRSA, ARPS)

PhD Researcher
Dept. of Fine Art, Kingston School of Art
Contemporary Art Research Group (CARG)
Kingston University London

assistant professor 

Selected Exhibitions

-We Are Publication” Multi-media Exhibition (2019). Dekalb Gallery, Pratt Institute, New York.

-“the Hold” Multi-media Exhibition (2019). Stanley Picker Gallery, Kingston University, London.

-Painting and Multi-media Exhibition (2018). Affordable Art Fair, Hong Kong.

-Description of Absence (2018). 1Aa Artspace Jeju, Korea.

-Silk Road International Art Festival (2017). Xian Art Museum, China.

-Urbanism/ Architecture Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism/ Architecture (2016). Shenzhen Municipal Committee, China.

-The 3rd Kumming Art Biennale (2016). Yunnan Fine Art Museum, China.

-UFO Art Exhibition of Glocal Communication (2013). F1 Fang Li Jun Artspace, Hong Kong.

-The 7th Tashkent International Biennale of Contemporary Art (2013). Uzbekistan.

-Beyond: an extraordinary space of experimentation for modernization (2006). The 2nd Guangzhou Triennial, China.


-Tam, T. K. et al (2016). On the Stream: Southeast Asian Contemporary Art, Yunnan Fine Art Museum, China.

-Tam, T. K. et al (2016). The 1st Shenzhen Biennale of Contemporary Art, Art Planning Committee of Shenzhen Artists Associations, China.

-Tam, T K. (2015) “In Between Institution and Market- the role of media art and infrastructure in the era of post-regional integration”, An International Conference Exploring Creative Research and Practice in Museum Making, K11 Art Foundation, UKT1 and the University of Leicester

Research Projects

2023-2024  Walking as Art, Graduate Research School Fund (2023), Kingston University (¥3,500).

2019-2023 The Liquidity of Data as the Production of Art: a practice-based research on contemporary art in the era of digitization, UIC Research Grant (¥35,000).

2022-2026 When Eyes meet Chinese Contemporary Art: A Simultaneous Biometrics and Experimental Aesthetics Study, Guangdong Higher Education Enhancement Plan (¥50,000).

2020-2025 A Practice-based Research on Contemporary Art, Hong Kong Baptist University- Beijing Normal University, United International College (UIC) Continuing Education Fund (¥50,000).

2019-2022 How to enhance the measurement of creativity in high education institutions, Innovation and Enhancement Project Guangdong Province (¥56,000).

2019-2020 International Festival of Intermedia, Project Grants The Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD), Hong Kong Special Administration Region (¥ 273,000) & Arts Development Council, Hong Kong (¥15,400)